Caravaggio: 100 Drawings Just Discovered...Really?

Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio; Uffizi Gall...
Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio; Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Caravaggio is one of my favorite painters. Imagine my joy when two Italian art experts unveiled last week their discovery of 100 drawings dating to Caravaggio's youth before he came to Rome and became famous. In fact, Caravaggio's formative years are a complete mystery, no one has ever seen any drawings or early work of the master. Which is why the discovery of 100 early drawings by Caravaggio is a major finding.

Or would be a major finding if true.

NOTE: Since I first wrote this post, the controversy has heated up: the Sole 24 Ore, the country's most respected paper, called the finding a hoax in its Sunday cultural page while Claudio Strinati, a major art critic and ex-director of the Polo Museale of Rome has come out with a statement in support of the two experts. Of course, the perfectly rounded figure: 100 new drawings will inevitably draw skepticism...

It's a pity the two experts didn't go the usual route of peer review and publishing their findings in a respected art journal. Instead they chose to produce an e-book and have it published by Amazon in four languages - or so it is reported in the press. I was only able to find the Italian version, here:

Including VAT and wireless delivery, it costs a hefty $17.50 (we e-book readers are not used to such prices!) but then it's a big book (over 470 pages) and it has plenty of illustrations. It is only available on advanded devices like the Kindle Fire, or else you can read it on your computer (Kindle Cloud Reader) or the Kindle for iPad or Android.

I downloaded a sample on the Cloud Reader and quite frankly I found myself a little frustrated. Oh sure, it's well done, the pictures are stupendous. But much time is wasted in the opening chapter on Carvaggio's early life with pictures of the places where he was brought up (the small town of Caravaggio of course, and Milan). 

What I would have liked to see in the opening is a presentation of the method used to identify Caravaggio's work out of the 1378 drawings in the Simone Peterzano archives. True, we're told that as Caravaggio had the reputation of being a fast worker, one could reasonably assume that in the four years he spent in Peterzano's workshop he might have produced over 1300 drawings and other artwork. Therefore, to uncover just one hundred Caravaggio drawings in those archives is not all that surprising.

Maybe. Still, it would have been better to explain right away what criteria were used to identify the drawings. In addition, according to the curator of the Sforza Castle collection where the Peterzano archives are maintained, the two experts worked from black and white photographs they had asked for and not from the originals.

So is this discovery to be dismissed as a hoax - possibly just a novel marketing trick to launch an e-book? 

Not necessarily. The authors of the book are serious people: Maurizio Bernardelli Curuz is the artistic director of the Brescia Musei Foundation (though not on the Executive Board), the author of many publications and an expert on...Caravaggio, of course. He is also the artistic director of the monthly magazine Stile Arte (he really is, I checked). It's an interesting magazine focused on art history as well as contemporary art issues - though no announcement in there of his e-book on Caravaggio, very discreet of him... His assistant in the Caravaggio project, Adriana Conconi Fedrigolli, is a young art historian, published author and expert in the Lombard painting school, with experience in the use of scientific analytical methods, including radiography, reflectography etc.

It's a pity they didn't pick a more conventional route to launch their Caravaggio project in the art world, because doing it this way has caused a negative backlash (take a look at the articles below). It will now take some time before other art historians verify their findings. 

I'm no expert on Caravaggio, but based on the four drawings presented in the opening pages (an old man's head etc) and that are claimed to correspond to details in oil paintings produced later (the old man's head is repeated in an oil painting, pretty much under the same angle), I can say just one thing: the drawings are remarkably similar, yet...they are strangely better drawn than the later paintings! They appear to reflect a better control of the line, more nuances in the shadows than you can find in his later oil paintings.

Very strange. I know what you're thinking: it the drawings are better than the oil paintings - from a purely technical standpoint - then they can't have been done by Caravaggio, right? He couldn't have evolved backwards through time, getting worse at drawing as he grew older and achieved fame with his extraordinary chiaro-scuro oil paintings, a technique no one had ever used before him. 

Well, I would argue the reverse. The fact that the drawings look "better" may just be an unwanted side-effect of using his chiaro-scuro technique. Believe me, it's a daunting technique to execute drawings: you use white paint on a dark background - in effect, it's the reverse of a classic drawing, say lead pencil or ink on a white paper. While it's possible to maintain volume and perspective, certain nuances and light plays are next to impossible to control using the chiaro-scuro technique. 

I know because I experimented with it. I'm not Caravaggio (far from it!) but I liked the challenge of "drawing in reverse" and I did that for a while in 2007-8 (I called that "counterlight painting"). 

Let me show you what it looks like so you get an idea of what I'm talking about. Here's a woman asleep in the subway (I've done a whole series of people in the subway - I love the way people look weird in there):

And here's the drawing it's taken from:

The drawing is more nuanced, if you see what I mean. Did I go "backwards"? No, I don't think so (I hope I didn't!). What happened is that the chiaro-scuro technique constrained me. It forced me to simplify the lines, also the play of light. The simplification is not necessarily a step back, it makes for a stronger overall effect on the viewer (in my humble opinion). All this to explain why some Caravaggio drawings made in his youth before he became the famed creator of the chiaro-scuro technique could well look "better", and yet be really his and hardly a sign that he has evolved backwards!

So are the 100 drawings really his? I'd like to think they are but I don't know, I'm no expert. We have to wait for the conclusions of a peer review, and I sincerely hope we won't have too long to wait!

PS. If you're curious and want to see more of my "couterlight" paintings, you can find them here.

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The Real Solution to the Euro Crisis? Devaluation!

English: €2 commemorative coin Euro Zone 2007 ...
English: €2 commemorative coin Euro Zone 2007 50th Anniversary of the Signature of the Treaty of Rome Français : Pièce commémorative de 2 euros de la Zone Euro en 2007 pour le 50e anniversaire de la signature du Traité de Rome (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The Euro Crisis started two years ago and thanks to Ms. Merkel's single-minded obsessive focus on austerity and debt reduction, we haven't moved one step closer to resolution of the crisis. The immediate result of this pig-headed approach is that default becomes the only alternative to devalution. Available fixes for the Euro mess are by-passed and the easiest one (devaluation) is simply ignored.


Because our narrow-minded, chauvinistic politicians can't think in Europe-wide terms. You have to consider the Euro-zone as a whole. If five out of the 17 member countries are in deep trouble (Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and lately Italy) and a major 6th one is about to sink in recession (France) not to mention other smaller ones that are suffering too (Belgium, the Netherlands), why, it's obvious: you should stop pretending the Euro-zone currency is in perfect health! 

It's not. 

Its value on currency markets quite clearly does NOT reflect the real state of the Euro-zone economies. It makes no sense at all that the Euro should be higher than the dollar: the US is slowly climbing out of recession while Europe is falling ever deeper into it. The Euro could perhaps be a little above the dollar but not some 25% above it! That's way too much.

The economic solution to such a situation is a classic: devalue! We all know the reasoning: devaluing the currency makes exports cheaper giving them a boost. Et voilà! The economic machine whirrs up again. Exactly what the suffering Southern Europeans need, but mind you, it's also going to help the Germans. Their exports will soar and everybody will be happy again in Europe, and, incidentally, the rest of the world too. Because a sick Europe is making the whole world sick, including China, India, Brazil - the emerging economies that had pulled us out of the 2008 slump and are now in pain as they find they aren't exporting to Europe anywhere near the levels of two years ago. Yes, two years ago when the Euro crisis started...

So why the hell doesn't our political class wake up? I fervently hope Draghi is listening and that the ECB Board meeting will take the right economic decision today and lower the prime interest rate...That would be a first healthy step towards devaluation aand re-aligning the Euro with the dollar.
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Writing more and more books per year...Why should you bother?

Books (Photo credit: henry…)
Is it madness? American writers are gearing up to writing more than one book per year - some set themselves the goal of 4 books per year! Of course big name writers who have long been on the NYT best seller list and have the means can do it: they use teams of assistants to help them - people who do the research for them and (probably) write up pieces that they can then use with a minimum of editing. But the others?

Why should any author aspire to writing 4 books a year? A writer on a popular blog, Author Culture, recently wrote that he would "love to be in a position where [he] could churn out upwards of eight titles a year". Why would he ever want to do such an apparently insane thing? Because he is extremely ambitious, that's why: he's planned on producing some 50 to 60 titles over his lifetime as a fiction author, and by speeding up yearly production, he'd be able to achieve his life goal much, much sooner,  in seven years instead of seventy! And probably produce more than 50 books, maybe double that or triple that amount! Imagine going to your grave having authored upwards of 200 or 300 titles!

Wow! I'm impressed! And why so many books? Because he says he's bubbling up with stories: he had started out with the modest goal of one book/year when he realized that if he kept that pace, he'd have to live past one hundred years "just to write the stories that had come to [his] mind in the last seven years"...An explosion, a tsunami!

Certainly this is admirable. And also it helps that he writes in a genre - action/adventure thrillers - where you tweak the setting, twist the plot and modify the characters and voilà, you get a new story with every new variant.

If you're in that enviable position of having so many stories to tell in your genre, then follow his advice, I found it quite thoughtful and spot on, particularly the idea of participating in NaNoWriMo to get your writing hand exercised (you have to write 50,000 words in one month) and as an added bonus, you get to make contacts with fellow writers both on line and physically - which can always come in handy should you decide to publish your NaNoWriMo produced book. I've got a fellow writer who did this and she was very pleased with the result.

Another good idea is to write more than one book at a time. Actually, I suspect that's something most writers do. I know I do: for example, I'm working on my novella I WILL NOT LEAVE YOU BEHIND, I'm putting the finishing touches on my BB novel A HOOK IN THE SKY (BB stands for Baby Boomers - the novel's main protagonist is a recently retired Baby Boomer), I'm translating Fear of the Past back into Italian with the help of an Italian editor, Giuseppe Bonanno di Linguaglossa who's curating it and has given it a smashing new title: IL VOLO DELLA FENICE ( the Flight of the Phoenix), love it! And he plans to release it in the form of a trilogy this fall. Then RICH, FAT AND BORED, a novel set in Tunisia needs a profound rewrite so that it takes in the events of the Arab Spring. And I've got a couple of non-fiction titles in the works as well: about the United Nations (having worked 25 years for the UN, I really know it from the inside) and the biography of Lievin Bauwens, Napoleon's favorite entrepreneur...

Will all this add up over time to some 50 titles or more? I doubt it. And it's certainly NOT my goal. I'll write just what comes to me naturally and following my interests and instincts. To try and produce a set number of books per year sounds so...mechanical. I know I couldn't do it and I'm not even interested. Because one thing is certain: if I don't enjoy what I'm writing, if I'm forcing myself to produce 5,000 words/day, then it's no good. Oh, sure, if a novel has got suspense or sex it might be fun to read, but it won't be literature.

Bottom line, it depends on your writing goal in life. If you want to be a successful genre writer and make money, it is true that you have to produce several titles a year, the more the better. If you're not a genre writer (my case), then you needn't worry. Write as much or as little as you like and feel comfortable doing.

In short: don't despair! This is one race you don't need to get into!

I know I won't. I can't possibly produce more than a couple of books/year, and probably only one book a year (if that) once I will have finished releasing my backlog. I'm totally, completely convinced that a high number of books produced does not equal a high quality of literature. 

Indeed, even among the classics, I don't think there's more than two or three titles per author that matter - I mean books that are really worthwhile and memorable and will stay on as beacons in the History of Literature. Even a giant in world literature like Tolstoy is only associated with a couple of novels, War and Peace and Anna Karenina and perhaps the novella Death of Ivan Ilyich. Yet he's written a lot more...How many of his other books have you read or do you plan to read?

Because there's another consideration: how many readers are there out there who can absorb so many books? If you've got one million writers (the probably number in the English language), can one expect the market to absorb 200 million books over the next fifty years? 
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Euro Crisis: Is Grexit Off the Table?

With the narrow victory of New Democracy, a pro-bailout party in Greece, relegating the anti-bailout radical left Syriza party to second place, can we expect "Grexit" - meaning the exit of Greece from the Eurozone - to be off the table?

Not really. Citigroup's chief economist, Willem Buiter (the one who coined the term "Grexit") doesn't think so, and he gives the chances of exit anywhere between 50% and 75%. That's as good as saying it's going to happen for sure, and a lot of the financial world (read: speculators) are of this opinion. They don't see how Greece still mired in debt and with a fast contracting economy can ever dig itself out of the hole's it's in. With 50% unemployment among its youth and the collapse of the welfare state (some 400,000 children are reportedly suffering from hunger), it is difficult to see how the so-called "seeds of dystopia" will not blossom in Greece.

Dystopia? Yes, that is where the Eurozone is headed. Look at this picture of a beggar, father of two hungry kids, in front of a supermarket:

You think that's Greece? Wrong, that's Italy! Near Perugia, in an area (Umbria) that not long ago was considered a perfect example of the "Italian Miracle". Have you forgotten the term? It refers to the boom the Italian economy experienced coming out of the Second World War and that seemed to go on for decades...Umbria until 2008 and even 2009 had survived the financial crisis and seemed to be doing very well, at least as well as the Germans, exporting its diverse luxury and artisanal goods to half the world. No more. A picture like this one is something I'd never thought I would see. The whole area used to be so prosperous, only a year ago! Shocking.

The crisis has hit here too, dystopia is on the march. Yesterday, in several Italian cities, people protested Monti's austerity measures and made ridicule of his (not very convincing) package of measures to stimulate growth.

Expect more protests across Europe.

Aren't the Germans aware of all this? Apparently not, even though much of their own youth is not happy with social policies that provide them with subsidized jobs (at €400 a month for the young worker and zero cost for the employer - all paid for by the State): young workers have learned that such jobs never lead to a career and that companies that have hired them never renew the contract. Rather than give them a chance, companies prefer to get another young worker at zero cost. That just makes good business sense!

There are really only two financial fixes: a banking union and Eurobonds. Both are difficult to get going (too many people involved) and Eurobonds in particular do not enjoy support from the Bundesbank. Indeed, the Bundesbank is dead set against them: not possible it says, unless we have a fiscal union with all Euro members relinquishing their authority over their national budget.

So, to solve the Euro crisis, we're back to politics. Everyone expects a lot from the end-of-June European summit, but what can German Chancellor Merkel do if the Bundesbank won't listen to reason? You'd think central bankers would be attentive to economic realities, but all they seem to be attentive to are their own balance sheets. This is a situation where the Germans could really bring down the European project.

People are fed up with austerity: they see that as measures to make them pay for the mistakes made by banks. Can you blame them?

One thing is certain: politicians in the Eurozone will need to listen more and more to what is happening in the street. In Greece, the new government (to be headed by the winning New Democracy's Samaras) will have to listen to the demands of whatever popular protest is orchestrated by Syriza (who, as of now, says it will stay in the opposition). It cannot afford not to do something to improve the lot of the average citizen - the famous 99 percent.

The time when the one percent  called all the shots is over (read: the speculators buoyed by the American credit rating agencies, Fitch, Moody's et al). Which is why I have hopes that the situation will get fixed - not immediately but over the medium term and maybe, just maybe, the Euro will be saved, and along with it, the European project.

I'm keeping my fingers crossed.
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Can You Make it as an Indie Author?

How to Be IndieHow to Be Indie (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Book Expo of America (BEA), the major annual book pageant in the US, has just concluded and left behind  some interesting indications of where the publishing industry is heading, in particular confirming that self-publishing is the "new frontier for writers" (to use agent Rachelle Gardner's words). 

A new frontier? Maybe but not a very friendly one if we are to believe Author Jennifer Weiner, the keynote speaker for the Book Bloggers Conference, who said and I quote:  "very few indie authors will make it!


And here's another unnerving observation made at the IDPF Digital Book conference about online discovery of books: if a book is not discovered in the top 10-20 results of a query, no chance of discovery! Furthermore, if you consider that it is accepted wisdom that most digital books are discovered by search, then we are all wasting our time marketing on Internet. No need to tweet, blog or post on Facebook...Forget everything, relax and just focus on writing your next book!

These pearls were picked up by Anthony Wessel for DIGITAL BOOK TODAY. He recapped his experience in the form of bullet point notes that are fun to read and don't waste your time. Consider his recap of Author Bella Andre's keynote address - Bella André who's one of the most successful indie author in the pantheon of self-published writers. I can't resist quoting his notes in their entirety:

Speaker: Author Bella Andre – Making it as an indie author.
Currently at 700K in digital books sold
Ave. book price $4.99.  Uses $0.99 only as a promo price.
Very clear author branding on her books (shown on overhead). FYI: take a look at her books on Amazon. A very good example.
Believes author name is the most important.
Readers don’t care if the author is an indie. They just want to read good books.
Series magic. Is a big driver of book sales.
Every time you gain another sale of book one in a series there is a corresponding increase in the other books in the series.
She was very dynamic.
Publishing in 2 different sub-genres under 2 different names.
Look at the branding of the pen name books written by “Lucy Kevin”.
Self published in foreign languages (I heard this theme elsewhere – emerging markets)
Uses an interpreter, editor, translator. Changes cover. Audio.
“I put out the books readers want. “ “I know my readership.”
“It takes a great deal of time and effort to self pub.”
“Readers don’t know that I am self pub.”
“In 3 weeks earned my money back on Audio.” (ACX.com)

Clearly, that's how you can make it as an indie author. Ready? Go!

For more, go to Anthony Wessel's excellent post on DIGITAL BOOK TODAY: click here You'll find invaluable tips on how to become a top Twitterer, a Bingo Blogger, in short a Master Internet Marketeer to sell your books, particularly in the Holiday Season (the only Big Season for book selling, in case you didn't know it). And you'll find that emerging markets in the rest of the world are the "next great opportunity" for writers.

And if you've got not time left to write books, well...hire a ghostwriter!
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