Rome under the Snow, Part II: The Real Story Behind the Polemics

Snow storms hit Rome yesterday, February 11th, but polemics raged all week. Here's the snow storm hitting my street:

And here's how Villa Volkonsky, the residence of the British Ambassador in Rome, looked hidden behind a double curtain of trees and snow:

Yet, more than the snow, the talk on Italian television and the media was not the snow but polemics surrounding the emergency.

Here's the story behind the polemics.

It's a fact (as I documented in my previous post) that the snow emergency last week caught the city totally unprepared. The images of Rome waking up the following morning under the snow were beautiful, but the beauty couldn't hide the fury of Roman citizens. They had been caught in traffic the night before during a home rush hour that in some cases lasted...eight hours! The next day they were stuck at home, public transport had broken down, even the metro was inaccessible and the supermarkets were empty. No milk, fruits, vegetables or fruit. Unthinkable!

Whose fault was it? How could a modern metropolis of three million inhabitants be caught unprepared?

All eyes accusingly turned to the the Mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno:

Il sindaco di Roma, AlemannoImage via Wikipedia

He should have warned the citizenry! He should have called the army in, he should have done something! Yet that first night, as the snowfall intensified all he had done was limiting himself to issue a warning that snow tires or chains were obligatory. The next morning, when 50 cm of snow had covered Rome, there was no one to shovel the snow, no means to clear the streets. In the afternoon, only a handful of people were used to clear the access to the football stadium, while the rest of the city remained paralyzed. 

The Mayor of course had a ready rebuttal: it was the fault of the "Protezione Civile" - that's the Italian state agency that is supposed to be responsible for the protection of citizens and organizing emergency aid in cases of natural disasters. The Protezione Civile, created 30 years ago, has earned high marks handling Italian natural disasters, most recently during the earthquake that hit Aquila in 2009, the deadliest earthquake since the Irpinia one in 1980. It left over 300 dead, 65,000 people were made homeless and thousands of buildings in several medieval towns, in particular the Aquila, were damaged .

So Alemanno passed the bucket and accused the Protezione Civile. A lot of Romans did not appreciate. The Protezione had done its duty: it had given ample warning of the impending disaster. It was up to the Mayor to take the necessary measures.

Say that again? Wasn't preventing disasters and organizing emergency aid the job of the Protezione Civile? Wasn't that what it was supposed to do, what it had been created for?

Apparently not. Following the Aquila episode, the Protezione Civile's mandate had been reduced from organizing and providing aid to merely coordinating it. And as anyone who's been involved in emergency aid knows (I have been, I know - in my work for FAO, I travelled to Kosovo, Ethiopia and Eritrea), with coordination you don't get very far in an emergency. To do things you need means, and you need them fast.

But the funds and power to obtain means had been taken away from the Protezione Civile. It was now up to mayors and local authorities to obtain funds and means - and if the town was too small, or like Rome lacked funds (too much spent on public concerts rather than on serious stuff), then there was only one way out: seek help from the Ministry of Interior.

Imagine that, having to go through a long-winded bureaucratic procedure to obtain the means to address an emergency!

That means you wait two, three days or more before you can get any help. Result: not only Rome suffered (but fortunately for Romans  it turned out to be a minor inconvenience), but people outside Rome suffered more, especially those living in small towns and villages in the mountains.

Imagine, numerous villages around Italy, especially in the Abruzzi and in Basilicata, found themselves totally isolated for days - up to 5 days and more... going without electricity and water! And in sub-zero temperatures! And with food reserves growing scarce!

That, as Guido Bertolaso said on his blog, is unacceptable for a modern, advanced democracy. Bertolaso? He's the previous head of the Protezione Civile (from 2001 to 2010),  now retired - he was forcefully removed from his job, more on that in a minute.

So the polemics swelled and Alemanno, the Mayor of Rome, pulled his act together and when a warning came that a second snowfall would hit Rome by Friday 10th, he was ready. Salt and sand bags had been brought, shovels distributed, trucks and other means mobilized, as necessary.

Indeed, on Saturday morning, I woke up to the sound of shovels raking the streets. Here are the men in orange suits, armed in shovels, in front of the British Embassy:

Yes, not working very hard. Five minutes later, they were leaving, shovels on their shoulders:

They were right of course, the snow was already melting. I thought I'd join in the effort and took the shovel the city had given us after the first snowfall:

I never thought I'd be shoveling snow in Rome one day! But if you look closely at the photo, you'll see there was no real need for it anymore. Indeed, a few minutes later, this is how the Church of San Giovanni looked, splendid under the (customary) Roman sun, with only wet streets as a reminder of what had happened:

Back to normal? No, the polemic was raging and I wanted to know what was the real story behind it. I asked around and dug into recent history.

This is what I found.

It all began after the Aquila earthquake. A nasty polemic developed around Bertolaso who was at the time the head of the Protezione Civile and considered a hero by many. Berlusconi, then Prime Minister, had asked him to move the G20 meeting, originally intended to take place in La Maddalena to Aquila in July 2009 - a foolish idea considering the region had just been struck by an earthquake and the priority should have been on reconstruction and giving homes to displaced people. But Berlusconi wanted to show the world what a brilliant manager he was. And he counted on Bertolaso's exceptional organizational skills.

But something went wrong. Maybe hubris, maybe the lax approach that was a mark of Berlusconi's management style, maybe irresistible temptations, maybe the little time available before the G20 meeting, who knows - no matter the reason, the fact is that Bertolaso ended up being accused of squandering state funds on dubious contractors.

The scandal at the time was enormous. For many, it looked like a national hero was unfairly under attack. But since there were growing proofs of wrongdoing, Tremonti, then Finance Minister and a moral purist, took a major decision: he presented to Parliament a law decree (the "Multiproroghe") that, among other things, was designed to take away from the Protezione Civile any funds or power for implementing emergency aid and left it with only an ill-defined general "coordination" role.

The law was passed in February 2011 and Bertolaso went home (actually he had left before).

With the present snow emergency, this law decree caused a mess: nobody knew who was supposed to do what, and with whose funds. Many people were left with the impression that the Protezione Civile was still the one in authority, when it no longer was. That had been clearly the misconception the Mayor of Rome had labored under - him and probably many others.

To put an end to the mess, on 8 February, the Monti government published a decree (here's the link) that clearly spells out who does what at every level of government: regional, provincial and local and this at the behest of the Protezione Civile.

So is the Protezione Civile back in power? Not quite: the decree only refers to the "exceptional weather adversity of February 2012". So what will happen with the next emergency, say next month or a year from now?

Your guess is as good as mine...

Italiano: Guido Bertolaso a Viareggio in segui...Bertolaso - when he was still running the show (Image via Wikipedia)

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1% against 99%: the Real Story behind the Euro Crisis

The Euro crisis, the move to austerity measures and budget deficit reduction, the disregard for policies to stimulate growth can all be traced back to the actions of one single group: the one percent.

That famous one percent from the 1% vs. 99% formula  the Occupy Wall Street movement has brought up to the front of the scene.The focus on social inequality was no doubt Occupy Wall Street's major contribution to the debate on how to solve the Great Recession that started in 2008 and  is still not over in spite of some recent improvements in the US. Plus the situation in Greece is rapidly deteriorating: it looks like default by March 20, probable exit from the Euro and then all bets are open: will the Euro collapse? I don't think so, but the situation is dire. Labor reform is at the centre of the debate, and it's not a question of job creation but of belt-tightening: fewer jobs, cuts in salaries. Ask the Greek what they think!

Massive unemployment is still with us on both sides of the Atlantic. I know, Americans have just received some good news about their unemployment rate but the truth is that nobody expects America to reach full-employment before...2019! And unemployment is worse among the young, reaching peaks of 50% in places like Spain, Greece or Southern Italy and it's pretty bad in several American States too. Perhaps the most surprising is that unemployment also affects the college-educated...our modern society produces technical marvels but cannot solve the problem of unemployment.

Unemployment is unquestionably the NUMBER ONE problem of our times, yet it's been kicked under the carpet, obfuscated by a misplaced concern for fixing budget deficits - a concern that is turning into an obsession.

We are told all day long by the media that budget deficits are the real problem. A parallel is drawn between state budget and our own as private citizens: if we are able to keep our income in balance with our personal expenditures, as any responsible individual should, the State should be called on to do the same.

It sounds reasonable and virtuous.

Actually, it's idiotic.

A state budget cannot be compared to an individual's budget. It's like comparing a pyramid with a sand castle, a mountain with a mole. One is collective and institutional - it represents the budget of a community (millions of persons) and expenditure planning over time (up to 20 years) - while the other isn't. It's individual and short-term. Each of us balance our budget (or try to do it) on a monthly basis and we don't go beyond our family responsibilities.

Looking at a state budget over the long run - say 20 years - it is obvious that you should balance it over that time period and not try to do it year by year. The Bible talks of cycles of seven years of good and bad times. Business cycles can be shorter or longer, but withing 20 years, you can expect to go through at least a couple of major cycles. That's at least a couple of opportunities to straighten your state budget if it got out of balance.

What do I mean? Simple, the 20 year period gives you a chance - you as a government - to do something constructive about a recession. When business stops investing and retrenches on employment, thus causing a downward spiral in consumption, it's time for you, the government to step in. You spend money on infrastructure, even digging useless holes as Keynes once famously suggested : it's better than doing nothing, because you'll maintain jobs and consumption level in spite of and in the face of the retreat in private business activities.

If you do nothing (as Republicans and British conservatives of the Osborne ilk would have it), business confidence won't be restored: as consumption winds down, businesses see their markets vanish. They are not crazy, they are certainly not going to start hiring in times of disappearing markets!

When times get better, when business is investing and hiring, profits and tax revenues are rising. That's when you start balancing your budget. You should never do it - much less think of it - in times of recession.

Yet, even though our Great Recession isn't over and indeed threatens a "double dip" in Europe, austerity measures, fiscal discipline and the virtue of balanced budgets continue to be blithely promoted by politicians who don't understand anything about economics, starting with Angela Merkel and Sarkozy and outside of the Euro-zone, Cameron in the UK and the Republicans (especially the Tea Party)  in the US.

All these austerity policies completely disregard the knowledge accumulated by the science of economics over time. What is most disturbing is the rejection of  Keynes historically-proved solution to combat depression. Somebody has to make the economic machine turn over: if the private sector won't, the public sector must kick in.  It took the massive expenditures of World War II on military production to lift the US out of the Great Depression.

What war will be needed to lift Europe out of the Great Recession?

Italy's prime minister Monti stands out as an exception among European politicians when he keeps harping that we need to focus on reviving economic growth. He's too good an economist not to know that austerity discourages consumption, hence business investment, thus bringing the whole economic machine to a grinding halt...

So how come so much nonsense is spread around in the media about the recession and means to get out of it?

First, this kind of "media noise" - fed by the systematic downgrading of sovereign debt by the American credit rating agencies - provides speculators, i.e the 1%, with the perfect opportunity to make loads of money. The rating agencies are not entirely innocent:  they are private and cater to the interests of  their primary clients, big banks, hedge funds and other speculators.

The 1% bets against the Euro and walks away with millions in profit.

Anyone who's got cash these days would be foolish to invest in the real economy beset by unemployment and weak consumption. So whatever extra funds are sloshing about - and there are a lot thanks to the US Federal Reserve policy of "quantitative easing" (read: printing dollars) - they all go into playing exquisitely 1% games on Wall Street, betting against sovereign debts. The game's been lucrative and it has been going on for quite some time now: the first one that got hit was Dubai, remember? That was almost three years ago.

At this point in time not a single one percenter is interested in the real economy. What business can give you similar returns to Wall Street? None! The financial world has overshadowed Main Street, and the 99% is sitting out in the cold.

Second point, no financial speculator has ever made money out of solving the unemployment problem. That's a boring, difficult problem. A real life problem for Main Street. But if the 1% says the government can't help by spending money on job creation because budget deficits are sinful and hurtful for future generations, well...It only means that recessions will be longer and deeper than they were in the past.

All we've learned from our Great Depression experience has been forgotten!

Yet unemployment is here, it hurts and it continues to hurt. Everywhere, on both sides of the Atlantic pond. A this point in the debate, no one knows quite what to do with it. There's a general feeling it has something to do with technological advances and globalization.

Recently the New York Times posted a fantastic graphic video, "the iPhone economy", showing how Apple has grown to be as big as GM but has only created one tenth of the number of jobs - and most of them in Asia...The job multiplier is very high in manufacturing and very low in services: auto jobs add 5 times as many jobs to the overall economy, while the multiplier for, say, hospital jobs is around 1.7! Take a look at the video, it lasts just 4 minutes and vividly explains why our economic problems are so hard to solve.

As it says, "we've become a nation in which people have fewer chances to climb into the middle class". Fewer chances? Actually, for the young, the chances are nearly none! The middle class is evaporating, everyone is into the 99%! Why? Because jobs in manufacturing have disappeared, that's why! You're either a skilled engineer or techie hired by Apple at high salaries, or forget it...

What is needed fast is a good discussion about how to solve unemployment and not a pointless discussion about deficit reduction.

Solutions? I've blogged about them several times (click here, here and here), obviously preaching to a desert.

People prefer to talk about budget deficits: that's a simple problem, right? The left column must equal the right column. If you try to say that this balancing act doesn't need to be continuous, that it can be done on and off over time, you're accused of selling off the future of your children. Goodness, why? Are you afraid the technocrats in charge of the budget are going to knife you and your children in the back? But the technocrats have children too...

Bottom line, if we, the 99%, were better aware of the ins and outs of the issue, there would be no problem. We wouldn't fall for the 1% self-serving arguments or political discourse aimed at scaring us.

If our politicians learned a little more about technical issues, it wouldn't hurt. Instead, they merely echo the opinions of the 1% - that was especially obvious at the Davos meeting: the WEF is a 1% event if there ever was one!

We might at last have an enlightened democratic government...But I'm afraid I'm daydreaming. We keep electing politicians for all the wrong reasons: because they have a nice smile on TV, they have a warm handshake, they speak well and easily about anything including things they know nothing about. But then, we don't know how well they've been primed. And if they're rich, or supported by rich friends - read the 1% - then it becomes easy: you buy your looks, your speeches, your opinions from the 1%.

Help! Is there an independent politician anywhere?

PS. In case you're wondering, yes, I did that caricature of 1% basking in the sun while the 99% sit under the rain...
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Rome under the Snow: What it's Really Like!

The last time it snowed in Rome was back in 1986! So Romans are unprepared, and what happened is what I want to show you here. No photos of the Colosseum or St Peter's under the snow, I'm sure you've seen them on TV. What you're getting is an insider's view!

It all started around 1 pm Friday February 3rd. Looking out the window of my living room, this is what I saw:

Giuseppe (my husband) and I wanted to go to a museum - forget it! We decided to stay home and console ourselves with good food:

Yes, for those of you who think I'm a die-hard beer drinker (because of my post on beer-drinking in Rome), you're in for a surprise! I love wine and this was a fantastic bottle - the last one in our cellar: a Brunello di Montalcino 1981. Yes, that's not a typo... ok, we drank it because it was so old: it needed drinking before going off (actually it was perfect). We had it with a little foie-gras followed by two scrumptious Italian cheeses: an aged Gorgonzola and a moist Taleggio. And with that, a perfect pear:

There's an old saying in Italy: "al contadino non far sapere quant'è buono il formaggio con le pere" (roughly: "don't tell peasants how well cheese goes with pears"). To me, it smacks of a historical example of the 1% showing disdain for the 99%!

By 3 pm, it began snowing real hard:

We heard on TV that people going home that night had been blocked for hours - up to 8 hours on the beltway ("raccordo annulare") circling Rome. Imagine, 8 hours trapped in your car! Many are said to have walked away, abandoning their car and creating a yet bigger traffic jam. That event actually marked the beginning of a wave of protests against the authorities, in particular the Mayor for not having listened to weather forecasts and not heeded the warnings issued by the "Protezione Civile" (the Italian State Agency for Emergency Aid/Protection of Civilians).

That night, that's how our street looked like as we went to bed:

Next morning, our geraniums were buried under some 50 cm of snow and Rome looked like it had moved to Finland:

I ran down to the street and this is what I discovered:

Yes, it was already 11 am, and there had been no attempt to clear the street. No salt, no sand, no shovels, nothing. Some people tried (uselessly) to free their cars:

Motorcycles? Forget them! Here's one girl busy recording with her camera what must be her scooter. Nice color lady!

When I got to Piazza San Giovanni, people stood there waiting for a bus that wasn't coming (they said they'd been there for 45 minutes) and the taxi stand - usually filled with a dozen cabs - was empty except for one daredevil:

He told me he had wrapped a "sock" around his front tires - it's that yellow stuff:

He said it was easy to put on, that it gripped the road pretty well as long as the snow didn't turn to slush. If it did (and now it certainly looked like it would as the day wore on and temperatures went up), it would become ineffective as the slush insinuated itself in the "sock". He assured me he planned to drive very very slowly...

Walking further into Piazza San Giovanni, I was taken by the beauty:

Note that most people walked around in ski outfits. I only saw one lady in a fur coat...And of course snowmen were made left and right, including this one which shows that in Italy, art is never far away:

The young man kneeling behind is (I presume) the artist. And here's a truly spectacular view of the old Roman walls - first built by the ancient Romans and expanded through the Middle Ages:

Walking back home, I noticed the milk truck in front of our neighborhood supermarket:

It got there three hours late! As did the bread. And when I walked in, I discovered empty shelves: no meat, no milk, no eggs. People were assaulting the "gastronomia" counter where they sell select hams, cheese, pasta sauces and the like:

It felt like World War III. Everyone was buying huge amounts, acting as if no truck would ever reach Rome again. Of course, the truck drivers strike last week had already put everyone on edge. And the media later reported that dozens of villages in the mountains were cut off. Actually tens of thousands of people in Italy are going without electricity and water, sometimes up to three days...So Romans are (as always) rather privileged people...

But there's little doubt that the city authorities did nothing to clear up the streets...except for distributing free shovels to the citizens, expecting them to do the work themselves! Here's a neighbor who got one of those plastic shovels, proudly showing off:

And then - this being Italy - he is happy like a kid playing with it, throwing snow at his friends:

Not too much clearing of the sidewalks (though the next day he told me he had helped free several cars)...We had a late lunch and once again resorted to our favorite defense strategy: good food. This time it was sautéed shrimp in a white wine sauce with black olives and cherry tomatoes (if you'd like to have the recipe, click here):

By 3 pm, because this is Rome, the sun was back shining again on the trees in front of our windows:

Emergency over? No, the media warned us that temperatures would drop and we could expect ice. The next morning, Sunday 5 February, some snow had melted away, but much remained and all very icy and slippery:

This guy (holding the yellow shovel and walking away) tried to clear the sidewalk but it was iced over and hard and he gave up before finishing the job.

When I walked in the supermarket to get some bread and potatoes, I was in for a big surprise:

Empty shelves, worse than the day before! No fruits and vegetables, no bread, no milk, no water, nothing. The media are reassuring: trucks should reach Rome by Monday - the only people in trouble (as always) are those in the mountains, without road access, electricity or water...

Meantime, the streets around us continued to be covered with snow and ice with no sign of any help coming from the city authorities. And small wonder: on the 12 o'clock news, I heard a special team of 400 people had been sent out with heavy equipment to clear the football stadium and area around it because of the big Roma-Inter match coming up in the afternoon.

In Italy, your best bet is to be a soccer fan!

For more pictures, go to my Picasa Album: click here.

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I've just created a QuickQuiz - 5 Questions About Heredity

Fear of the past, anyone? Here's the lion that inspired the first book cover of my Sicilian epic, originally called Fear of the Past and now out with a different cover and title: The Phoenix Heritage. This lion is old, the model goes back to the Phoenicians, it's a typical hieratic Sicilian statue. 

And here's the Quiz I created (linked to the book's central theme):

Click it and play this QuickQuiz now and test your knowledge!

You'll discover that some very famous people were impacted by genetic inheritance, perhaps some you never suspected like Jane Fonda or Queen Victoria

If you're wondering why I picked heredity as a subject for the quiz, that's easy! It's something I've always been fascinated with: the issue of nature vs. nurture. Are we born as a clean slate and therefore become the product of our education and experience (nurture) or have we inherited family traits that determine who we are and how we act (nature)?

Anyone who's read my FEAR OF THE PAST (published in 2011 in 3 installments published as separate ebooks or THE PHOENIX HERITAGE (out in 2012) knows the book is really about the weight of heredity and whether one can shake it off and become free from the past.

We all have seen our parents or grandparents in our children. Don't you wonder sometimes who you really look like? If you look like someone in your family who was a happy, successful person, good for you! 

Suppose you realize you look like a family member who notoriously messed up his life, who had a tendency to love the wrong woman or sink in depression and alcoholism...or worse, committed suicide? How would you feel then? 

In THE PHOENIX HERITAGE, Tony Bellomo, a young Italo-American suffering from burnout undertakes a unique journey into self discovery: he falls in a Time Trap in Sicily (his deceased father's home) and meets the ghosts of his ancestors waiting for Judgment Day. You'd think this is a marvelous opportunity for Tony to learn more about which forebears he looks like and discover who he really is. Most of us can't go back 900 years like Tony... But this very knowledge will torment Tony in the worst possible way. 

Here's the place where he found the ghosts of his ancestors roaming about: the Circolo di Conversazione, a "conversation club": 

This place actually exists in Ragusa. Such clubs existed all over Sicily in the 19th century. The lion I used for the cover is on top of the building:

Here is the inside:

A perfect place for ghosts and a marvelous opportunity for Tony to learn about himself... but  a scary one. He discovers he shares everything - both looks and emotions - with a certain Francis Leckie, an English adventurer who settled in Sicily in the 1800s. An attractive dare-devil and an innovative entrepreneur, alas, he met nothing but failure: he went bankrupt and the woman he loved, the beautiful Duchess of Floridia (a real historical character), left him for another (actually she married the King of Naples in 1814)...

The story unfolds on another, deeper level. Tony worries that his resemblance to the Englishman also marks him out as a failure. Can he avoid making the same mistakes?

The real question is: can Tony play the cards heredity has bestowed on him in a different way? Or is he condemned to repeat the mistakes of the past? 

Do you know anyone who's the prisoner of his family heredity? Is there a way to escape it? Tony, by the last page of the last book has found his way...Find out how he did it and be prepared for surprises: this novel takes you to many unpredictable places and situations!

A KDP Select title, exclusively available on Amazon. Click here to buy

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Italian Design's Best Kept Secret: How the Old Helps the New

On a recent Sunday evening I was given an unusual insight in what makes Italian design so successful. It happened at the fair for young Italian designers, the A.I.Fair (it stands for Artisanal Intelligence) held on 29 January in Emperor Hadrian's Temple in the suggestive Piazza di Pietra in old Rome.

A eureka moment!

But I didn't know that when I got there with my husband around 7 pm. It was a beautiful night, with a young moon in the clear sky and I felt relaxed and romantic. And mildly curious. Here's the Temple:

Majestic! And here's the entrance, hidden among the ancient columns:

Once in, we were met by a noisy and colorful crowd, with a big video screen at one end of the vast hall:

Lots of stands manned by young people, all showing the most eclectic and inventive array of design and fashion products, ranging from weird hats:

to a variety of rings:



Hummm, a bit heavy, those heels...and when I climbed up to the mezzanine that girds the big hall, I discovered amazing dresses like this one:

Later I was told that these were the original dresses used in Piero Tosi's film "Barbarella" that got 5 Oscar nominations. These dresses are usually not shown to the  public, so that was a rare occasion. Then I came across this one: 

Wondering whether this particular one was meant for a one-breast Amazon, I walked over to the balustrade and took a shot of the hall seen from above:

Here you can really appreciate how the "old helps the young": this country has amazing architectural remnants of its long and glorious history that can be used to showcase the work of innovative, young designers. No doubt they're good and inventive, but this kind of environment really helps to set their work off! Old Hadrian called on to support the inventiveness of young Romans...The Temple allure makes the design ideas look elegant and trendy, even if some of them probably aren't.

It's quite a trick to pull off and no doubt one of the elements that help explain the success of Italian design worldwide. Yes, it is one of Italian design's best kept secret: how they are able to exploit the old to the benefit of the new. And of course, how they are inspired by the past to look to the future and invent news ways to do old things.

In one corner of the hall, I came across this surprising stand that confirmed my insight. Here it is:

Set between two small columns, a big "C" on a black background stands out  - the trademark for Archivio Cicconi, a collection of over 7 million photographs spanning the whole of the 20th century. It is reminiscent of Gucci's double "G" but much starker in its simplicity. Next two it are two of the products one young and inspired artist has ingeniously derived from the old photographs, with a process that was in use at the end of the 19th century.

Here's the artist, Edoardo Cicconi:

He explained to us that since these photos are reproduced with a handmade process, no two photos are ever alike, thus ensuring that it is an unrepeatable artwork. And they can be made any size, even big enough to cover a whole wall in your living room!

Here is one, derived from a photograph of models in 1948:

And here's the bizarre zeppelin floating above Piazza Venezia, looking surprisingly ominous:

And here's the most extraordinary of the three - a procession of nuns walking through Rome in 1950, like a black pond filled with white balls:

And here's a close up of the material on which the photographs are printed - 100% cotton and you can clearly see the brush work that leaks beyond the edge of the photo:

There were also other interesting things on the Cicconi Archives stand, like this old camera:

There were piles of their new catalogue - here's the cover:

Gregory Peck in 1959 - on the terrace of the Hassler Hotel, with St Peter's in the background. Inside, lots of American celebrities - including this one of Louis Armstrong and his wife, vacationing in Rome:

And here's Pino er Pasticciere (Pino the Pastry chef) serenading a very young  Ursula Andress:
We're in 1958...I met Pino at a party many years later (he came to our house in 1986) and he still had a remarkable voice and oodles of charm.

By 8 pm, the fair closed and we were out on the streets hunting for a restaurant. Actually, there were many, and since the temperature was so mild - in spite of this being January - many people were dining outdoors:
I prefer indoors in winter, no matter what. So we walked on and came to the Pantheon:

Turning the corner, on Via del Seminario, we came to this old restaurant (established in 1946) that my husband knew from his Dolce Vita days (!):

He told me their pizzas were excellent, and so they were:

Crisp and tasty - that stuff on the left side of the pizza are zucchini flowers...What struck me though was the fact that this restaurant is still in the hands of the same family. Now the third generation, and still fondly looking after their clients:

The family touch...that's what makes the difference!

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